Last updated: 2018
Medically reviewed by RxISK’s Medical Team.
- What is post-SSRI sexual dysfunction?
- How common is PSSD?
- Can PSSD be prevented?
- Is it the antidepressant medication or depression?
- How long do sexual side effects last after stopping?
- Publications and studies
- Are there any treatments?
- Reporting your condition
- Latest news from RxISK
- Other drugs and conditions
- See also
Close to 100% of people who take antidepressants experience some form of sexual side effects.
Most people who take an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or an SNRI (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) and some tricyclic antidepressants (clomipramine and imipramine) will feel some degree of genital numbing, often within 30 minutes of taking the first dose.
Commonly used SSRIs include paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat), fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), and vortioxetine (Brintellix).
Common SNRIs include venlafaxine (Effexor), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) and duloxetine (Cymbalta).
What is post-SSRI sexual dysfunction?
Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) is an iatrogenic condition which can arise following antidepressant use, in which sexual function does not completely return to normal after the discontinuation of SSRIs, SNRIs and some tricyclic antidepressants [1-2].
Some people develop sexual side effects on antidepressants which either remain in full, or don’t resolve completely, when the drug is stopped. For others, the condition only appears when they actually stop the medication, or begin to reduce the dosage.
PSSD affects both men and women. It can happen after only a few days exposure to an antidepressant and can persist for months, years, or indefinitely. There is no known cure.
Symptoms of PSSD can include:
- Reduced genital sensation / genital anesthesia
- Erectile dysfunction / decreased vaginal lubrication
- Delayed or inability to orgasm (anorgasmia)
- Pleasureless, weak or “muted” orgasms
- Decreased or loss of libido (sex drive)
- Reduced response to sexual stimuli
- Decreased or lack of nocturnal erections
- Premature ejaculation
- Reduced nipple sensitivity
- Soft glans
Some sufferers experience a noticeable reduction in tactile sensation – describing their genitals as feeling less sensitive or numb, as if exposed to an anesthetic. Others perceive little or no change in tactile sensation, but notice a reduction in sexual sensation. These problems can also be accompanied by reduced nipple sensitivity.
There can be a loss of arousal which can cause difficulties with intercourse. Men can have difficulty getting and maintaining an erection. Women can have problems with lubrication.
Orgasm is typically experienced with a decreased or loss of pleasurable feeling, often referred to as a pleasureless or muted orgasm. There can also be noticeably weaker muscle contractions. Although men and women with PSSD often have more difficulty in achieving orgasm, premature ejaculation can also develop after stopping an SSRI .
Although less commonly reported, some male sufferers develop an issue in which the shaft of the penis becomes erect but the glans remains flaccid.
There is no simple test to diagnose PSSD. A diagnosis is made by considering several factors including medication history, onset and profile of the symptoms, and by eliminating other possible causes.
While PSSD can often result in lower than normal testosterone levels, this is not responsible for the condition. Restoring hormone levels back to normal with medication fails to resolve the problem.
While many doctors are aware of PSSD, others are less familiar with the condition. This not uncommonly results in PSSD symptoms being misdiagnosed as a psychological problem, when it is actually pharmacological in origin. This is not only unhelpful for the sufferer, it can also lead to further prescribing of the medications that caused the condition.
Antidepressant sexual side effects are in no way related to depression, or any other psychological or psychiatric disorder.
How common is PSSD?
It isn’t known how many people regain 100% of their original sexual functioning and sensation after using an antidepressant. Based on the available data, PSSD may be quite common .
The condition can vary in severity between individuals. It is likely that some people don’t realize they are suffering from it. They might have had sexual side effects while on an antidepressant which seemed to resolve when they stopped, but they still notice that their sexual function isn’t the same as it used to be, or that sexual activity feels different.
For example, a person can find that they can now achieve orgasm after previously being unable to do so while on the medication, yet it now feels weaker and less intense compared to before using the antidepressants. This creates a confusing situation for the sufferer. As they are no longer on the drug, they might think they are imagining it or that it must be due to another reason such as a relationship issue.
These issues are explored further in the blog post, How Common is Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction.
Can PSSD be prevented?
When using an SSRI, SNRI or some tricyclic antidepressants, there is currently no way of determining who will develop PSSD when the drug is stopped, or any way to actively prevent it. Stopping an antidepressant gradually (tapering) does not prevent the problem.
There is no evidence that adding another drug to an antidepressant to combat sexual side effects eg. bupropion (Wellbutrin) will prevent PSSD when the antidepressant is stopped.
It is important that anyone considering the use of antidepressants should take into account the risk of potentially permanent changes to sexual functioning when making a decision about their treatment.
PSSD can be extremely distressing to those affected. It can lead to marriage break-up, job loss and suicide. But for some sufferers, the lack of desire means they are no longer interested in sex, and are unconcerned that they have the condition.
Is it the antidepressant medication or depression?
There are four ways to help distinguish persisting sexual side effects from any problem that might have led to treatment in the first instance.
- You had normal sexual functioning immediately prior to starting the antidepressant.
- You experienced a very clear onset of sexual side effects within the first few days or weeks of starting treatment, and your sexual function never fully returned to normal after stopping.
- You are experiencing genital numbing (loss of sexual sensations and/or anesthesia) and muted orgasms. While depression can sometimes make you less interested in sex, it does not cause these symptoms which are well-known effects of serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. In men, a reduction or loss of nocturnal erections also points to the drug rather than a psychological problem.
- If your original depression cleared up on the antidepressant and you were doing well, on stopping treatment no new problems should appear for several months or even years. Any persisting sexual problems, or any new sexual problems that appear within days of stopping, are more likely to be caused by the drug.
Even if your sexual function responded to changes in dose while on treatment and significantly improved upon stopping, if it isn’t the same as before you started antidepressants, you may be suffering from PSSD.
How long do sexual side effects last after stopping?
When sexual side effects persist after the antidepressant is stopped, there is no specific timescale for recovery.
Some people report a certain degree of natural improvement over a period of time – sometimes months or years after stopping the antidepressant. However, the term “recovery” in this sense can be misleading as closer scrutiny often reveals that there hasn’t been a full return to pre-drug state.
Many sufferers fail to recover to any significant degree, with some having had the problem for over 20 years without any sign of improvement.
For some people, PSSD may be permanent.
Publications and studies
In a study by Montejo et al (1999), a group of patients who were experiencing sexual side effects on an SSRI were switched to the dopaminergic antidepressant, amineptine . After six months, 55% still had at least some type of sexual dysfunction. This is compared to only 4% in the control group who were treated with amineptine alone, and were not exposed to an SSRI.
Three large placebo controlled studies into the use of SSRIs as a treatment for premature ejaculation found that the ejaculation-delaying effect of the medication persisted for a significant number of participants, after the drug was discontinued [6-8].
Between 2006 and 2008, 8 cases of persistent sexual dysfunction following SSRI/SNRI treatment appeared in the medical literature [9-12].
In 2008 and 2009, there were published calls for epidemiological studies to investigate the prevalence of PSSD [13-14].
Since 2011, the US Prozac patient information sheet has warned that “Symptoms of sexual dysfunction occasionally persist after discontinuation of fluoxetine treatment” .
In 2012, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center, Lareb, published details of 19 reported cases of PSSD from their database, and called for further investigation into the issue [16-17].
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in 2013, states that “In some cases, serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction may persist after the agent is discontinued” . In the same year, Stinson completed a qualitative study of 9 PSSD sufferers, examining the impact of the condition on quality of life .
In 2014, Hogan et al listed 91 cases of persistent sexual dysfunction linked to SSRIs or SNRIs, sourced from an internet portal for reporting adverse events . Waldinger et al described a case of persistent genital anesthesia following paroxetine treatment that responded to low-power laser irradiation .
In 2015, Ben-Sheetrit et al published a study of 183 possible cases of PSSD, including 23 high-probability cases, from an on-line survey .
In 2017, two review articles were published [22-23], as well as a further case report involving decreased libido and moderate difficulties in maintaining an erection which had persisted for 12 weeks after withdrawal of paroxetine .
A further review article was published in 2018 .
In April 2018, Giatti et al published an article exploring commonalities between PSSD and post-finasteride syndrome (PFS) .
In May 2018, Healy et al published a study of 300 cases of enduring sexual dysfunction of which 221 were after the previous use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors . These were sourced from RxISK’s adverse event reporting system. Also in May 2018, a published petition was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), requesting changes to SSRI and SNRI products to warn about PSSD and persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) .
For a more detailed review of the PSSD literature, see Citizen petition: Sexual side effects of SSRIs and SNRIs.
Treatment with fluoxetine (Prozac) has been shown to cause persistent desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors after removal of the SSRI in rats . In another study, the use of a 5-HT1A antagonist was shown to reverse and prevent sexual dysfunction in rats that were being administered with fluoxetine .
Therefore, hypotheses for PSSD have often focused on a possible neurological model involving persisting changes to brain chemistry. However, attempts by PSSD sufferers to manipulate the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in an effort to resolve the condition, have proved unsuccessful.
Rodent studies have shown that chronic treatment with SSRIs at a young age resulted in permanently decreased sexual behavior in adulthood, with the presence of long-term neurological changes [31-32]. Maternal exposure to fluoxetine was also found to impair sexual motivation in adult male mice .
A systematic review of the literature on persistent sexual dysfunction in animals after early exposure to SSRIs was published in 2016 . It concluded: “Our results showed substantial and lasting effects on sexual behaviour in rats after exposure to an SSRI early in life on important sexual outcomes.”
This raises the question of whether there might be long-term sexual consequences for human offspring exposed to antidepressants either during pregnancy or at a young age.
While on SSRIs, studies have shown side effects to include impaired semen quality and damage to sperm DNA [35-37], as well as issues that are often linked to the endocrine system such as hormone imbalances [38-39] and breast enlargement . SSRIs have also been found to have effects on sex steroids . However, the role of the endocrine system in persisting problems such as PSSD is currently unclear.
Fluoxetine (Prozac) has been classified as a reproductive toxin by the Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR), an expert panel at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health .
Are there any treatments?
There is currently no viable treatment for PSSD.
A number of medications, herbs and related compounds can produce pro-sexual effects in some sufferers. However, the results are generally very limited, inconsistent and can come with their own risks.
PDE5 inhibitors such as sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil often provide little or no benefit in PSSD. In some cases they have no effect at all, while in others they provide only a limited improvement in erectile function. They also offer no direct benefit to the other areas of sexual functioning that can be impaired in PSSD eg. sensation.
There is no evidence to suggest that the use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) is a suitable treatment for PSSD.
The typical strategies for managing sexual side effects usually only apply to problems that occur while on treatment, and are therefore unhelpful in PSSD. These would generally involve switching to a different antidepressant, lowering the dose, or potentially stopping the medication altogether.
A 2014 paper by Waldinger et al, reported that a PSSD sufferer with severe penile anesthesia experienced some improvement in tactile and temperature sensation after the use of Low Power Laser Irradiation (LPLI) . This type of treatment is generally used for pain issues and is also known as low level laser therapy or cold laser therapy. It was hypothesized that SSRI-induced genital anesthesia may be due to disturbances of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Ion Channels. The improvement in this case did not extend to any aspects of sexual responsiveness.
Reporting your condition
If you are suffering from PSSD, you can report it to us by completing a RxISK Report. Please provide as much detail as possible, including the dates that you started and stopped the drug.
Latest news from RxISK
- June 28, 2018. RxISK is mentioned in two news articles about PSSD. See PSSD In The Guardian, U.S. News & Lyon Capitale.
- June 7, 2018. Can thermal threshold testing be used to investigate the genital numbness in PSSD? See Antidepressants, Sex and Thermal Thresholds.
- May 4, 2018. RxISK announces details of two new publications in the International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine. See Enduring Sexual Dysfunction: 300 Cases.
- March 20, 2018. Is there a link between PSSD, withdrawal and small fibre neuropathy?
To avoid missing any of our latest information about PSSD, you can subscribe to our monthly newsletter which includes a recap of all recent posts on RxISK and davidhealy.org, plus any other important news.
Other drugs and conditions
A number of other medications can also cause persisting sexual side effects after the drug has been stopped:
- Antihistamines that are serotonin reuptake inhibiting
- Ziprasidone – an antipsychotic which is also a serotonin reuptake inhibitor
- Some antibiotics (that may be serotonin reuptake inhibiting) such as tetracycline and doxycycline
- Finasteride (Propecia) which is used to treat male pattern baldness and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The condition is called Post-Finasteride Syndrome (PFS) [43-47].
- Isotretinoin (Accutane) which is used as a treatment for acne [4, 27], and is also serotonin reuptake inhibiting.
The use of SSRIs or SNRIs, and often their withdrawal, has consistently been reported as one of the triggers of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) [48-52]. This is essentially the opposite of PSSD, causing a relentless sense of arousal and discomfort in the genitals, but without any accompanying feeling of desire. Watch our PGAD video. In terms of treatment, the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been discussed in the literature , though not specifically for SSRI related problems. Its effectiveness in cases of SSRI-induced PGAD remains unclear.
On September 12, 2017, we launched our RxISK Prize campaign to raise $100,000 which will be offered to anyone who finds a cure for PSSD, PFS or PRSD.
For a list of media articles about PSSD, see In The Media: PSSD and Related Sexual Dysfunctions.
We need your help to build a network of healthcare professionals who engage with patients when they report prescription drug side effects. Learn more about the RxISK Map and why it’s important.
Our blog contains a number of posts about sex and medications, including several about PSSD.
We have a Complex Withdrawal section which discusses withdrawal and PSSD. We put forward a hypothesis of what might be responsible in terms of the underlying physiology, and we invite everyone to get involved in researching the issues.
Since 2008, Mind, one of the UK’s leading mental health charities, has warned that sexual side effects can sometimes persist after stopping an SSRI. Their current information advises that the problem may continue indefinitely.
- Bahrick AS. Post SSRI sexual dysfunction. American Society for the Advancement of Pharmacotherapy. Tablet 2006;7(3):2-3,10-11.
- Bahrick AS. Persistence of sexual dysfunction side effects after discontinuation of antidepressant medications: Emerging evidence. The Open Psychology Journal. 2008;1:42-50. doi:10.2174/1874350100801010042.
- Adson DE, Kotlyar M. Premature ejaculation associated with citalopram withdrawal. Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Dec;37(12):1804-6. doi:10.1345/aph.1D214. PMID 14632589.
- Hogan C, Le Noury J, Healy D, Mangin D. One hundred and twenty cases of enduring sexual dysfunction following treatment. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2014;26(2)109-16. doi:10.3233/JRS-140617. PMID 24902508.
- Montejo AL, Llorca G, Izquierdo JA, Carrasco JL, Daniel E, Pérez-Sola V, et al. Sexual dysfunction with antidepressive agents. Effect of the change to amineptine in patients with sexual dysfunction secondary to SSRI. Actas Esp Psiquiatr (in Spanish). 1999 Jan-Feb;27(1):23-34. PMID 10380144.
- Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY. Safety and efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind placebo-controlled, fixed dose, randomized study. Int J Impot Res. 2006 Mar-Apr;18(2):164–9. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901384. PMID 16107866.
- Arafa M, Shamloul R. Efficacy of sertraline hydrochloride in treatment of premature ejaculation: a placebo-controlled study using a validated questionnaire. Int J Impot Res. 2006 Nov-Dec;18(6):534–8. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901469. PMID 16554853.
- Safarinejad MR. Safety and efficacy of escitalopram in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, randomized study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Oct;27(5):444–50. doi:10.1097/jcp.0b013e31814b98d4. PMID 17873675.
- Csoka AB, Shipko S. Persistent sexual side effects after SSRI discontinuation. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75(3):187-8. doi:10.1159/000091777. PMID 16636635.
- Bolton JM, Sareen J, Reiss JP. Genital anaesthesia persisting six years after sertraline discontinuation. J Sex Marital Ther. 2006 Jul-Sep;32(4):327-30. doi:10.1080/00926230600666410. PMID 16709553.
- Kauffman RP, Murdock A. Prolonged Post-Treatment Genital Anesthesia and Sexual Dysfunction Following Discontinuation of Citalopram and the Atypical Antidepressant Nefazodone. The Open Women’ Health Journal 2007;1:1-3.
- Csoka AB, Bahrick A, Mehtonen OP. Persistent sexual dysfunction after discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Sex Med. 2008 Jan;5(1):227-33. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00630.x. PMID 18173768.
- Kauffman RP. Persistent Sexual Side Effects after Discontinuation of Psychotropic Medications. Primary Psychiatry. 2008.
- Farnsworth KD, Dinsmore WW. Persistent sexual dysfunction in genitourinary medicine clinic attendees induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Int J STD AIDS. 2009 Jan;20(1):68–9. doi:10.1258/ijsa.2008.008402. PMID 19103903.
- US Prozac patient information sheet. pi.lilly.com/us/prozac.pdf
- Lareb, Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center. SSRIs and persistent sexual dysfunction (2012). http://databankws.lareb.nl/Downloads/KWB_2012_3_SSRI.pdf
- Ekhart GC, van Puijenbroek EP. Does sexual dysfunction persist upon discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? (In Dutch). Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2014;56(5):336-40. PMID 24838589.
- American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Page 449.
- Stinson RD. The impact of persistent sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors after discontinuing treatment: a qualitative study. PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa, 2013. http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/5061/
- Waldinger MD, van Coevorden RS, Schweitzer DH, Georgiadis J. Penile anesthesia in Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) responds to low-power laser irradiation: a case study and hypothesis about the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 15;753:263-8. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.11.031. PMID 25483212.
- Ben-Sheetrit J, Aizenberg D, Csoka AB, Weizman A, Hermesh H. Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: Clinical Characterization and Preliminary Assessment of Contributory Factors and Dose-Response Relationship. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015 Jun;35(3):273-8. doi:10.1097/JCP.0000000000000300. PMID 25815755
- Reisman Y. Sexual Consequences of Post-SSRI Syndrome. Sex Med Rev. 2017 Oct;5(4):429-433. doi:10.1016/j.sxmr.2017.05.002. Epub 2017 Jun 20. PMID 28642048.
- Bala A, Tue Nguyen HM, Hellstrom WJG. Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: A Literature Review. Sex Med Rev. 2018 Jan;6(1):29-34. doi:10.1016/j.sxmr.2017.07.002. Epub 2017 Aug 1. PMID 28778697.
- Muquebil Ali Al Shaban Rodríguez OW, Álvarez de Morales Gómez-Moreno E, Fernández Fernández J, Fresno García C, del Mar Fernández Fernández M. Disfunción sexual persistente tras el tratamiento con inhibidores selectivos de la recaptación de serotonina: a propósito de un caso tras la retirada de paroxetina. Psiquiatría Biológica. 2017 May-Aug;24(2):70-72.
- Coskuner ER, Culha MG, Ozkan B, Kaleagasi EO. Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: Preclinical to Clinical. Is It Fact or Fiction? Sex Med Rev. 2018 Feb 17. pii: S2050-0521(17)30143-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2017.11.004. PMID 29463440.
- Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Panzica G, Melcangi RC. Post-finasteride syndrome and post-SSRI sexual dysfunction: two sides of the same coin? Endocrine. 2018 Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s12020-018-1593-5. PMID 29675596.
- Healy D, Le Noury J, Mangin D. Enduring sexual dysfunction after treatment with antidepressants, 5α-reductase inhibitors and isotretinoin: 300 cases. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2018;29(3-4):125-134. doi:10.3233/JRS-180744. PMID 29733030.
- Healy D. Citizen petition: Sexual side effects of SSRIs and SNRIs. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2018;29(3-4):135-147. doi:10.3233/JRS-180745. PMID 29733031.
- Raap DK, Garcia F, Muma NA, Wolf WA, Battaglia G, van de Kar LD. Sustained desensitization of hypothalamic 5-Hydroxytryptamine1A receptors after discontinuation of fluoxetine: inhibited neuroendocrine responses to 8-hydroxy-2-(Dipropylamino)Tetralin in the absence of changes in Gi/o/z proteins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Feb;288(2):561-7. PMID 9918559.
- Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Pulicicchio C, Malberg JE, Andree TH, Stack GP, Hughes ZA, et al. 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonism reverses and prevents fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12(8):1045-53. doi:10.1017/S1461145709000406. PMID 19435548.
- Maciag D, Simpson KL, Coppinger D, Lu Y, Wang Y, Lin RC, et al. Neonatal Antidepressant Exposure has Lasting Effects on Behavior and Serotonin Circuitry. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Jan;31(1):47-57. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300823. PMID 16012532.
- de Jong TR, Snaphaan LJ, Pattij T, Veening JG, Waldinger MD, Cools AR, et al. Effects of chronic treatment with fluvoxamine and paroxetine during adolescence on serotonin-related behavior in adult male rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2006 Jan;16(1):39-48. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.06.004. PMID 16107310.
- Gouvêa TS, Morimoto HK, de Faria MJ, Moreira EG, Gerardin DC. Maternal exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine impairs sexual motivation in adult male mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Sep;90(3):416-9. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2008.03.025. PMID 18457868.
- Simonsen AL, Danborg PB, Gøtzsche PC. Persistent sexual dysfunction after early exposure to SSRIs: Systematic review of animal studies. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2016 Mar 16;28(1):1-12. doi:10.3233/JRS-160668. PMID 27176752.
- Tanrikut C, Schlegel PN. Antidepressant-associated changes in semen parameters. Urology. 2007 Jan;69(1):185.e5-7. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2006.10.034. PMID 17270655.
- Safarinejad MR. Sperm DNA damage and semen quality impairment after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors detected using semen analysis and sperm chromatin structure assay. J Urol. 2008 Nov;180(5):2124-8. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2008.07.034. PMID 18804223.
- Akasheh G, Sirati L, Noshad Kamran AR, Sepehrmanesh Z. Comparison of the effect of sertraline with behavioral therapy on semen parameters in men with primary premature ejaculation. Urology. 2014 Apr;83(4):800-4. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2013.12.004. PMID 24529582.
- Safarinejad MR. Evaluation of endocrine profile and hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced male sexual dysfunction. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 Aug;28(4):418-23. doi:10.1097/JCP.0b013e31817e6f80. PMID 18626269.
- Cohen AJ. Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction Associated With Low Serum Free Testosterone. Psychiatry Online 1999.
- Amsterdam JD, Garcia-España F, Goodman D, Hooper M, Hornig-Rohan M. Breast enlargement during chronic antidepressant therapy. J Affect Disord. 1997 Nov;46(2):151-6. PMID 9479619.
- Jacobsen NW, Hansen CH, Nellemann C, Styrishave B, Halling-Sørensen B. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on three sex steroids in two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and in the H295R cell assay. Toxicol In Vitro. 2015 Oct;29(7):1729-35. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2015.07.005. PMID 26162595.
- Hines RN, Adams J, Buck GM, Faber W, Holson JF, Jacobson SW, et al. NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of fluoxetine. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2004 Aug;71(4):193-280. PMID 15334524.
- Irwig M, Kolukula S. Persistent sexual side effects of finasteride for male pattern hair loss. J Sex Med. 2011 Jun;8(6):1747-53. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02255.x. PMID 21418145.
- Irwig M. Persistent Sexual Side Effects of Finasteride: Could They Be Permanent? J Sex Med. 2012 Nov;9(11):2927-32. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02846.x. PMID 22789024.
- Di Loreto C, La Marra F, Mazzon G, Belgrano E, Trombetta C, Cauci S. Immunohistochemical evaluation of androgen receptor and nerve structure density in human prepuce from patients with persistent sexual side effects after finasteride use for androgenetic alopecia. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 24;9(6):e100237. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100237. PMID 24959691.
- Kiguradze T, Temps WH, Yarnold PR, Cashy J, Brannigan RE, Nardone B, et al. Persistent erectile dysfunction in men exposed to the 5α-reductase inhibitors, finasteride, or dutasteride. PeerJ. 2017 Mar 9;5:e3020. doi: 10.7717/peerj.3020. PMID 28289563.
- Melcangi RC, Santi D, Spezzano R, Grimoldi M, Tabacchi T, Fusco ML, et al. Neuroactive steroid levels and psychiatric and andrological features in post-finasteride patients. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Jul;171:229-235. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.04.003. PMID 28408350.
- Goldmeier D, Leiblum SR. Persistent genital arousal in women – a new syndrome entity. Int J STD AIDS. 2006 Apr;17(4):215-6. doi:10.1258/095646206776253480. PMID 16595040.
- Goldmeier D, Bell C, Richardson D. Withdrawal of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may cause increased atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and persistent sexual arousal in women? J Sex Med. 2006 Mar;3(2):376. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00224.x. PMID 16490037.
- Leiblum SR, Goldmeier D. Persistent genital arousal disorder in women: case reports of association with anti-depressant usage and withdrawal. J Sex Marital Ther. 2008;34(2):150-9. doi:10.1080/00926230701636205. PMID 18224549.
- Pink L, Rancourt V, Gordon A. Persistent genital arousal in women with pelvic and genital pain. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014 Apr;36(4):324-330. doi:10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30608-3. PMID 24798670.
- Jackowich R, Pink L, Gordon A, Poirier É, Pukall CF. Symptom Characteristics and Medical History of an Online Sample of Women Who Experience Symptoms of Persistent Genital Arousal. J Sex Marital Ther. 2017 May 1:1-16. doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2017.1321598. PMID 28459348.
- Waldinger MD, de Lint GJ, Venema PL, van Gils AP, Schweitzer DH. Successful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in two women with restless genital syndrome: the role of A-delta and C-nerve fibers. J Sex Med. 2010 Mar;7(3):1190-9. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01578.x. PMID 19832936.