Medically reviewed by RxISK’s Medical Team.
Last updated: 2019
- What is post-SSRI sexual dysfunction?
- How common is PSSD?
- Can PSSD be prevented?
- Is it the antidepressant medication or depression?
- How long do sexual side effects last after stopping?
- Publications and studies
- Reporting your condition
- Other drugs and conditions
- See also
Close to 100% of people who take antidepressants experience some form of sexual side effects.
Most people who take a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), and some tricyclic antidepressants (clomipramine and imipramine) will feel some degree of genital numbing, often within 30 minutes of taking the first dose.
Commonly used SSRIs include paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat), fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), and vortioxetine (Trintellix).
Common SNRIs include venlafaxine (Effexor), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) and duloxetine (Cymbalta).
What is post-SSRI sexual dysfunction?
Post-SSRI sexual dysfunction (PSSD) is an iatrogenic condition which can arise following antidepressant use, in which sexual function does not completely return to normal after the discontinuation of SSRIs, SNRIs and some tricyclic antidepressants [1, 2].
Some people develop sexual side effects on antidepressants which either remain in full, or don’t resolve completely, when the drug is stopped. For others, the condition only appears when they actually stop the medication, or begin to reduce the dosage.
PSSD affects both men and women. It can happen after only a few days exposure to an antidepressant and can persist for months, years, or indefinitely. There is no known cure.
Symptoms of PSSD can include:
- Reduced genital sensation / genital anesthesia
- Erectile dysfunction / decreased vaginal lubrication
- Delayed or inability to orgasm (anorgasmia)
- Pleasureless, weak or “muted” orgasms
- Decreased or loss of libido (sex drive)
- Reduced response to sexual stimuli
- Decreased or lack of nocturnal erections
- Premature ejaculation
- Reduced nipple sensitivity
- Soft glans
Some sufferers experience a noticeable reduction in tactile sensation – describing their genitals as feeling less sensitive or numb, as if exposed to an anesthetic. Others perceive little or no change in tactile sensation, but notice a reduction in sexual sensation. These problems can also be accompanied by reduced nipple sensitivity.
There can be a loss of arousal which can cause difficulties with intercourse. Men can have difficulty getting and maintaining an erection. Women can have problems with lubrication.
Orgasm is typically experienced with a decreased or loss of pleasurable feeling, often referred to as a pleasureless or muted orgasm. There can also be noticeably weaker muscle contractions. Although men and women with PSSD often have more difficulty in achieving orgasm, premature ejaculation can also develop after stopping an SSRI .
Although less commonly reported, some male sufferers develop an issue in which the shaft of the penis becomes erect but the glans remains flaccid.
There is no simple test to diagnose PSSD. A diagnosis is made by considering several factors including medication history, onset and profile of the symptoms, and by eliminating other possible causes.
While PSSD can often result in lower than normal testosterone levels, this is not responsible for the condition. Restoring hormone levels back to normal with medication fails to resolve the problem.
While many doctors are aware of PSSD, others are less familiar with the condition. This not uncommonly results in PSSD symptoms being misdiagnosed as a psychological problem, when it is actually pharmacological in origin. This is not only unhelpful for the sufferer, it can also lead to further prescribing of the medications that caused the condition.
Antidepressant sexual side effects are in no way related to depression, or any other psychological or psychiatric disorder.
How common is PSSD?
It isn’t known how many people regain 100% of their original sexual functioning and sensation after using an antidepressant. Based on the available data, PSSD may be quite common .
The condition can vary in severity between individuals. It is likely that some people don’t realize they are suffering from it. They might have had sexual side effects while on an antidepressant which seemed to resolve when they stopped, but they still notice that their sexual function isn’t the same as it used to be, or that sexual activity feels different.
For example, a person can find that they can now achieve orgasm after previously being unable to do so while on the medication, yet it now feels weaker and less intense compared to before using the antidepressants. This creates a confusing situation for the sufferer. As they are no longer on the drug, they might think they are imagining it or that it must be due to another reason such as a relationship issue.
Can PSSD be prevented?
When using an SSRI, SNRI or some tricyclic antidepressants, there is currently no way of determining who will develop PSSD when the drug is stopped, or any way to actively prevent it. Stopping an antidepressant gradually (tapering) does not prevent the problem.
There is no evidence that adding another drug to an antidepressant to combat sexual side effects eg. bupropion (Wellbutrin) will prevent PSSD when the antidepressant is stopped.
It is important that anyone considering the use of antidepressants should take into account the risk of potentially permanent changes to sexual functioning when making a decision about their treatment.
PSSD can be extremely distressing to those affected. It can lead to marriage break-up, job loss and suicide. But for some sufferers, the lack of desire means they are no longer interested in sex, and are unconcerned that they have the condition.
Is it the antidepressant medication or depression?
There are four ways to help distinguish persisting sexual side effects from any problem that might have led to treatment in the first instance.
- You had normal sexual functioning immediately prior to starting the antidepressant.
- You experienced a very clear onset of sexual side effects within the first few days or weeks of starting treatment, and your sexual function never fully returned to normal after stopping.
- You are experiencing genital numbing (loss of sexual sensations and/or anesthesia) and muted orgasms. While depression can sometimes make you less interested in sex, it does not cause these symptoms which are well-known effects of serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. In men, a reduction or loss of nocturnal erections also points to the drug rather than a psychological problem.
- If your original depression cleared up on the antidepressant and you were doing well, on stopping treatment no new problems should appear for several months or even years. Any persisting sexual problems, or any new sexual problems that appear within days of stopping, are more likely to be caused by the drug.
Even if your sexual function responded to changes in dose while on treatment and significantly improved upon stopping, if it isn’t the same as before you started antidepressants, you may be suffering from PSSD.
How long do sexual side effects last after stopping?
When sexual side effects persist after the antidepressant is stopped, there is no specific timescale for recovery.
Some people report a certain degree of natural improvement over a period of time – sometimes months or years after stopping the antidepressant. However, the term “recovery” in this sense can be misleading as closer scrutiny often reveals that there hasn’t been a full return to pre-drug state.
Many sufferers fail to recover to any significant degree, with some having had the problem for over 20 years without any sign of improvement.
For some people, PSSD may be permanent.
Publications and studies
In a study by Montejo et al (1999), a group of patients who were experiencing sexual side effects on an SSRI were switched to the dopaminergic antidepressant, amineptine . After six months, 55% still had at least some type of sexual dysfunction. This is compared to only 4% in the control group who were treated with amineptine alone, and were not exposed to an SSRI.
Three large placebo controlled studies into the use of SSRIs as a treatment for premature ejaculation found that the ejaculation-delaying effect of the medication persisted for a significant number of participants, after the drug was discontinued [6–8].
Since 2011, the US Prozac patient information sheet has warned that:
“Symptoms of sexual dysfunction occasionally persist after discontinuation of fluoxetine treatment” .
In 2012, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center, Lareb, published a report with details of 19 reported cases of PSSD from their database . The findings were subsequently published in the medical literature .
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in 2013, states that:
“In some cases, serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction may persist after the agent is discontinued” .
In the same year, Stinson completed a qualitative study on the impact of persistent sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors after discontinuing treatment .
In 2014, Hogan et al listed 91 cases of persistent sexual dysfunction linked to SSRIs or SNRIs, sourced from an internet portal for reporting adverse events . Waldinger et al described a case of persistent genital anesthesia following paroxetine treatment that responded to low-power laser irradiation .
In 2015, Ben-Sheetrit et al published a study of 183 possible cases of PSSD, including 23 high-probability cases, from an on-line survey .
In 2017, two review articles advised that patients should be warned about PSSD when using SSRIs [22, 23]. In the same year, a further case report was published involving decreased libido and moderate difficulties in maintaining an erection which had persisted for 12 weeks after withdrawal of paroxetine .
A further review article was published in 2018 .
In April 2018, Giatti et al published an article exploring commonalities between PSSD and post-finasteride syndrome (PFS) .
In May 2018, Healy et al published a study of 300 cases of enduring sexual dysfunction of which 221 were after the previous use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors . These were sourced from RxISK’s adverse event reporting system.
Also in May 2018, a published petition was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requesting changes to SSRI and SNRI products to warn about PSSD and persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) . The petition was also submitted to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
In 2019, Calabrò et al reported a case of persistent sexual dysfunction after the use of citalopram which responded to a dietary supplement . On June 11, 2019, the European Medicines Agency recommended changes to SSRI and SNRI product labels to include information about persistent sexual dysfunction after drug withdrawal .
Treatment with fluoxetine has been shown to cause persistent desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors after removal of the SSRI in rats . In another study, the use of a 5-HT1A antagonist was shown to reverse and prevent sexual dysfunction in rats that were being administered with fluoxetine .
Therefore, hypotheses for PSSD have often focused on a possible neurological model involving persisting changes to brain chemistry. However, attempts by PSSD sufferers to manipulate the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in an effort to resolve the condition, have proved unsuccessful.
Rodent studies have shown that treatment with SSRIs at a young age resulted in permanently decreased sexual behavior in adulthood [33–35], with the presence of long-term neurological changes . Maternal exposure to fluoxetine was also found to impair sexual motivation in adult male mice .
A systematic review of the literature on persistent sexual dysfunction in animals after early exposure to SSRIs was published in 2016 . It concluded:
“Our results showed substantial and lasting effects on sexual behaviour in rats after exposure to an SSRI early in life on important sexual outcomes.”
This raises the question of whether there might be long-term sexual consequences for human offspring exposed to antidepressants either during pregnancy or at a young age.
While on SSRIs, studies have shown side effects to include impaired semen quality and damage to sperm DNA [38–41], as well as issues that are often linked to the endocrine system such as hormone imbalances [42, 43] and breast enlargement . SSRIs have also been found to have effects on sex steroids . However, the role of the endocrine system in persisting problems such as PSSD is currently unclear.
Fluoxetine has been classified as a reproductive toxin by the Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR), an expert panel at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health .
There is currently no viable treatment for PSSD.
A number of medications, herbs and related compounds can produce pro-sexual effects in some sufferers. However, the results are generally very limited, inconsistent and can come with their own risks.
PDE5 inhibitors often provide little or no benefit in PSSD. In some cases they have no effect at all, while in others they provide only a limited improvement in erectile function. They also offer no direct benefit to the other areas of sexual functioning that can be impaired in PSSD eg. sensation.
There is no evidence to suggest that the use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a suitable treatment for PSSD.
The typical strategies for managing sexual side effects usually only apply to problems that occur while on treatment, and are therefore unhelpful in PSSD. These would generally involve switching to a different antidepressant, lowering the dose, or potentially stopping the medication altogether.
On September 12, 2017, we launched our RxISK Prize campaign to raise $100,000 which will be offered to anyone who finds a cure for PSSD, PFS, or sexual dysfunction after using isotretinoin.
Reporting your condition
If you are suffering from PSSD, you can report it to us by completing a RxISK Report. Please provide as much detail as possible, including the dates that you started and stopped the drug.
To avoid missing any of our latest information about PSSD, you can subscribe to our monthly newsletter which includes a recap of all recent posts on RxISK and davidhealy.org, plus any other important news.
Other drugs and conditions
A number of other medications can also cause persisting sexual side effects after the drug has been stopped:
- Antihistamines that are serotonin reuptake inhibiting
- Ziprasidone – an antipsychotic which is also a serotonin reuptake inhibitor
- Some antibiotics (that may be serotonin reuptake inhibiting) such as tetracycline and doxycycline
- FDA updated the product information for finasteride products in 2011 to warn of persisting sexual side effects after discontinuation of treatment, with further warnings added in 2012 .
- Isotretinoin (Accutane) which is used as a treatment for acne [4, 27], and is also serotonin reuptake inhibiting.
The use of SSRIs or SNRIs, and often their withdrawal, has consistently been reported as one of the triggers of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) . This is essentially the opposite of PSSD, causing a relentless sense of arousal and discomfort in the genitals, but without any accompanying feeling of desire. Watch our PGAD video.
- Media articles about PSSD and related sexual dysfunctions.
- Posts about sex and medications from our blog.
- Complex Withdrawal. Hypothesis about protracted withdrawal and PSSD.
- Bahrick AS. Post SSRI sexual dysfunction. ASAP Tablet. 2006;7(3):2-3,10-11.
- Bahrick AS. Persistence of sexual dysfunction side effects after discontinuation of antidepressant medications: Emerging evidence. The Open Psychology Journal. 2008;1:42-50.
- Adson DE, Kotlyar M. Premature ejaculation associated with citalopram withdrawal. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37(12):1804-6. PMID 14632589.
- Hogan C, Le Noury J, Healy D, Mangin D. One hundred and twenty cases of enduring sexual dysfunction following treatment. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2014;26(2)109-16. PMID 24902508.
- Montejo AL, Llorca G, Izquierdo JA, Carrasco JL, Daniel E, Pérez-Sola V, et al. Sexual dysfunction with antidepressive agents. Effect of the change to amineptine in patients with sexual dysfunction secondary to SSRI. Actas Esp Psiquiatr (in Spanish). 1999;27(1):23-34. PMID 10380144.
- Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY. Safety and efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind placebo-controlled, fixed dose, randomized study. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18(2):164–9. PMID 16107866.
- Arafa M, Shamloul R. Efficacy of sertraline hydrochloride in treatment of premature ejaculation: a placebo-controlled study using a validated questionnaire. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18(6):534–8. PMID 16554853.
- Safarinejad MR. Safety and efficacy of escitalopram in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, randomized study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(5):444–50. PMID 17873675.
- Csoka AB, Shipko S. Persistent sexual side effects after SSRI discontinuation. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75(3):187-8. PMID 16636635.
- Bolton JM, Sareen J, Reiss JP. Genital anaesthesia persisting six years after sertraline discontinuation. J Sex Marital Ther. 2006;32(4):327-30. PMID 16709553.
- Kauffman RP, Murdock A. Prolonged Post-Treatment Genital Anesthesia and Sexual Dysfunction Following Discontinuation of Citalopram and the Atypical Antidepressant Nefazodone. The Open Women’ Health Journal. 2007;1:1-3.
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- US Prozac product information.
- Lareb, Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center. SSRIs and persistent sexual dysfunction (2012).
- Ekhart GC, van Puijenbroek EP. Does sexual dysfunction persist upon discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? (In Dutch). Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2014;56(5):336-40. PMID 24838589.
- American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Page 449.
- Stinson RD. The impact of persistent sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors after discontinuing treatment: a qualitative study. PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa, 2013.
- Waldinger MD, van Coevorden RS, Schweitzer DH, Georgiadis J. Penile anesthesia in Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) responds to low-power laser irradiation: a case study and hypothesis about the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;753:263-8. PMID 25483212.
- Ben-Sheetrit J, Aizenberg D, Csoka AB, Weizman A, Hermesh H. Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: Clinical Characterization and Preliminary Assessment of Contributory Factors and Dose-Response Relationship. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;35(3):273-8. PMID 25815755.
- Reisman Y. Sexual Consequences of Post-SSRI Syndrome. Sex Med Rev. 2017;5(4):429-433. PMID 28642048.
- Bala A, Tue Nguyen HM, Hellstrom WJG. Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: A Literature Review. Sex Med Rev. 2018;6(1):29-34. PMID 28778697.
- Muquebil Ali Al Shaban Rodríguez OW, Álvarez de Morales Gómez-Moreno E, Fernández Fernández J, Fresno García C, del Mar Fernández Fernández M. Disfunción sexual persistente tras el tratamiento con inhibidores selectivos de la recaptación de serotonina: a propósito de un caso tras la retirada de paroxetina. Psiquiatría Biológica. 2017;24(2):70-72.
- Coskuner ER, Culha MG, Ozkan B, Kaleagasi EO. Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: Preclinical to Clinical. Is It Fact or Fiction? Sex Med Rev. 2018;6(2):217-223. PMID 29463440.
- Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Panzica G, Melcangi RC. Post-finasteride syndrome and post-SSRI sexual dysfunction: two sides of the same coin? Endocrine. 2018;61(2):180-193. PMID 29675596.
- Healy D, Le Noury J, Mangin D. Enduring sexual dysfunction after treatment with antidepressants, 5α-reductase inhibitors and isotretinoin: 300 cases. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2018;29(3-4):125-134. PMID 29733030.
- Healy D. Citizen petition: Sexual side effects of SSRIs and SNRIs. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2018;29(3-4):135-147. PMID 29733031.
- Calabrò RS, De Luca R, Manuli A, Portaro S, Naro A, Quattrini F. Towards Improving Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction by Using Nutriceuticals: Lessons from a Case Study. J Sex Marital Ther. 2019 Jan 14:1-4. PMID 30640584.
- European Medicines Agency. PRAC recommendations on signals adopted at the 13-16 May 2019 PRAC meeting. Published June 11, 2019. Page 5.
- Raap DK, Garcia F, Muma NA, Wolf WA, Battaglia G, van de Kar LD. Sustained desensitization of hypothalamic 5-Hydroxytryptamine1A receptors after discontinuation of fluoxetine: inhibited neuroendocrine responses to 8-hydroxy-2-(Dipropylamino)Tetralin in the absence of changes in Gi/o/z proteins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;288(2):561-7. PMID 9918559.
- Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Pulicicchio C, Malberg JE, Andree TH, Stack GP, Hughes ZA, et al. 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonism reverses and prevents fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12(8):1045-53. PMID 19435548.
- Maciag D, Simpson KL, Coppinger D, Lu Y, Wang Y, Lin RC, et al. Neonatal Antidepressant Exposure has Lasting Effects on Behavior and Serotonin Circuitry. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31(1):47-57. PMID 16012532.
- de Jong TR, Snaphaan LJ, Pattij T, Veening JG, Waldinger MD, Cools AR, et al. Effects of chronic treatment with fluvoxamine and paroxetine during adolescence on serotonin-related behavior in adult male rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2006;16(1):39-48. PMID 16107310.
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- Gouvêa TS, Morimoto HK, de Faria MJ, Moreira EG, Gerardin DC. Maternal exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine impairs sexual motivation in adult male mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;90(3):416-9. PMID 18457868.
- Simonsen AL, Danborg PB, Gøtzsche PC. Persistent sexual dysfunction after early exposure to SSRIs: Systematic review of animal studies. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2016;28(1):1-12. PMID 27176752.
- Tanrikut C, Schlegel PN. Antidepressant-associated changes in semen parameters. Urology. 2007;69(1):185.e5-7. PMID 17270655.
- Safarinejad MR. Sperm DNA damage and semen quality impairment after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors detected using semen analysis and sperm chromatin structure assay. J Urol. 2008;180(5):2124-8. PMID 18804223.
- Koyuncu H, Serefoglu EC, Yencilek E, Atalay H, Akbas NB, Sarıca K. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters. Int J Impot Res. 2011 Nov-Dec;23(6):257-61. PMID 21776003.
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- Safarinejad MR. Evaluation of endocrine profile and hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced male sexual dysfunction. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(4):418-23. PMID 18626269.
- Cohen AJ. Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction Associated With Low Serum Free Testosterone. Psychiatry Online. 1999.
- Amsterdam JD, Garcia-España F, Goodman D, Hooper M, Hornig-Rohan M. Breast enlargement during chronic antidepressant therapy. J Affect Disord. 1997;46(2):151-6. PMID 9479619.
- Jacobsen NW, Hansen CH, Nellemann C, Styrishave B, Halling-Sørensen B. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on three sex steroids in two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and in the H295R cell assay. Toxicol In Vitro. 2015;29(7):1729-35. PMID 26162595.
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- FDA. Questions and Answers: Finasteride Label Changes.